Validations of an alpha version of the E3 Forensic Speech Science System (E3FS3) core software tools

Philip Weber, Ewald Enzinger, Beltrán Labrador, Alicia Lozano-díez, Daniel Ramos, Joaquín González-rodríguez, Geoffrey Stewart Morrison

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper reports on validations of an alpha version of the E3 Forensic Speech Science System (E3FS3) core software tools. This is an open-code human-supervised-automatic forensic-voice-comparison system based on x-vectors extracted using a type of Deep Neural Network (DNN) known as a Residual Network (ResNet). A benchmark validation was conducted using training and test data (forensic_eval_01) that have previously been used to assess the performance of multiple other forensic-voice-comparison systems. Performance equalled that of the best-performing system with previously published results for the forensic_eval_01 test set. The system was then validated using two different populations (male speakers of Australian English and female speakers of Australian English) under conditions reflecting those of a particular case to which it was to be applied. The conditions included three different sets of codecs applied to the questioned-speaker recordings (two mismatched with the set of codecs applied to the known-speaker recordings), and multiple different durations of questioned-speaker recordings. Validations were conducted and reported in accordance with the “Consensus on validation of forensic voice comparison”.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100223
JournalForensic Science International: Synergy
Publication statusPublished - 7 Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

© 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license 4.0

Funding: This research was supported by Research England’s Expanding Excellence in England (E3) Fund as part of funding for the Aston Institute for Forensic Linguistics 2019–2022.

Collection of the forensic_eval_01 data and the AusEng 500+ data was supported by the Australian Research Council, Australian Federal Police, New South Wales Police, Queensland Police, National Institute of Forensic Science, Australasian Speech Science and Technology Association, and the Guardia Civil through Linkage Project LP100200142.


  • Forensic voice comparison
  • Likelihood ratio
  • Validation
  • x-vector


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