The Press Forming Behaviour of Austertic and Metastable Stainless Steels

  • A.J. Griffiths

    Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


    The present state of knowledge of austenite stability in 18/8 type nickel-chromium steels, transformation of austenite to a' martensite, and the deformation and press formability of austenitic stainless steels has been reviewed.

    Experimental work is described for a range of chromium=nickel stainless
    steels of different austenite stability used in press forming. The steels were
    processed to give a wide range of properties at the final gauge and the effects
    of prior deformation and of prior transformation on mechanical properties and
    press formability were assessed with respect to austenite stability. An analysis
    has also been made of the complex true stress~true strain relationships obtained
    with steels of this type for the three stress systems, un.taxial tension, biaxial
    tension, and plane strain compression, and the results related to press formability.

    The results showed that transformation to α’ martensite during
    deformation is beneficial to stretch formability and to those mechanical properties governed by strength, but only beneficial to deep drawing when its presence does not impair ductility. The presence of α' martensite was shown to resist localised necking. Unlike mild steel, the drawing capacity of stainless steel is not influenced markedly by the anisotropy ratio R.

    The stress-strain curve for stainless steels does not obey the Ludwik
    relationship and an alternative function has been derived. α' martensite
    formation markedly affects the shape of this curve and this is reflected in the
    constants governing the derived function. However, the strain level at which
    a change in the slope of the stress-strain curve occurs, does not correspond to
    the strain level at which α' martensite is initiated and an alternative theory is

    Using the derived function, a theoretical prediction of stress-strain
    data, and various mechanical and press forming properties can be obtained from
    knowledge of the austenite stability of the steel.
    Date of Award1967
    Original languageEnglish


    • stainless steels
    • behaviour

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